There are three fundamental aspects to achieve pregnancy: the presence of sperm in the ejaculate, the presence of eggs in the ovary and tubal patency allowing the meeting between the male and female gametes.
When these conditions are satisfied the in vivo techniques imply that conception occurs in the female genital tract. The first therapeutic approach to the couple can be the support, monitoring and induction of ovulation, followed by timed intercourse or intrauterine insemination.
As some women show irregular ovulatory mechanism, and an oral or subcutaneous therapy can induce the ovulation when absent, or improve the quality of the ovulation; usually these therapies have an average duration of 10-14 days.
- To verify the success of ovulation, spontaneous or induced, it is useful to perform an ultrasound monitoring to identify the moment of conception and to avoid the risk of multiple pregnancies, since it is desirable to have a response of one or maximum two follicles.
- Timed intercourses represent the more physiological approach to get the spontaneous conception: after the ultrasound monitoring, the couple will receive advice on the timing of intercourses that will be concentrated at the time of ovulation.
- The intrauterine insemination, on the other hand, implies the intervention of the laboratory in optimizing the quality of the semen, which will be duly prepared and introduced at the level of the uterine cavity, through a thin catheter.