The in vitro fertilization procedures are IVF (in vitro fertilizarion) and ICSI (intra cytoplasmatic sperm injection).
When in vivo technique fail or when some basic characteristics of the couple indicate that IVF is immediately necessary, in vitro techniques provide that the encounter between male and female gametes occur in vitro, in the laboratory. The therapies for ovulation induction ( "ovarian stimulation") are administered subcutaneously, at a higher dose than the one used to obtain the single ovulation; a drug that inhibits spontaneous ovulation is always associated. There are different protocols and mode (time and route of administration) to associate different drugs, as all the therapies area tailored to the patients.
In opposition to in vivo conception, the multiple ovulation induction purpose is to obtain numerous oocytes to optimize the chances of success of the treatment. During stimulation, ultrasound monitoring is performed twice or 3 times a week, associated with hormonal assays. On the day of ovulation ultrasound-guided oocyte retrieval (ovum pick up) is performed. The retrieved oocytes are fertilized with ICSI or FIVER technique on the bases of patients’ characteristics and partners’ seminal parameters. The resulting embryos are transferred into the uterus 2 to 5 days after oocyte retrieval with a process that is called embryo transfer.